Archaeologist here (though not all that well versed in human osteology) -- All I can tell you for sure is that it varies A LOT and not necessarily just by a person's height or outward appearance. People of the same height or general shape (for lack of a better word) can definitely be "big boned" or very lightly built. As you would expect, this varies by gender and age, but maybe even more significantly by race and and physical or environmental variables (like nutrition, disease, and muscle mass). It is interesting to note that both genetics as well as environmental factors play a role in bone morphology, mass, and density for individuals. I have seen an incredible range in size and shape of human skeletal remains -- it has contributed a lot to my appreciation of human variability over space and time.
To answer your original question:
I would say a safe, yet conservative guess would be that your skeleton accounts for about 10-15% of total body weight. Again, I'm not an osteologist or expert of any kind -- just someone who digs in the dirt for money.